2012년 02월 20일

Entrepreneur's Diary #048
불확실한 미래와 Internal Locus of Control

(사진 : 한밭대 자유열람실에서)

미래에 어떤 일이 일어날 지, 나는 모른다.
그래서, 매일 흥분된다. 알면 재미 없잖아!!
 
그러나, 미래는 내가 만든다!!
다른 사람이 만든 세상은 내가 만들 세상보다 비좁거나,
더 쿨하지 않을 수도 있으니까 말야. 움홧홧!



Locus of control is a theory in personality psychology referring to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Understanding of the concept was developed by Julian B. Rotter in 1954, and has since become an important aspect of personality studies.
 
Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behavior and actions. For example, if a person with internal loci of control does not perform as well as they wanted to on a test, they would blame it on lack of preparedness on their part. Or if they performed well on a test, then they would think that it was because they studied enough. Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events. Using the test performance example again, if a person with external loci of control does poorly on a test, they would blame the test questions being too difficult. Whereas if they performed well on a test, they would think the teacher was being lenient, or that they were lucky.
 
Those with a high internal locus of control have better control of their behavior, tend to be more politically involved, and are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high external (or low internal respectively) locus of controlThey also assign greater likelihood to their efforts being successful and more actively seek information concerning their situation.
 
One's "locus" (Latin for "place" or "location") can either be internal (meaning the person believes that they control their life) or external (meaning they believe that their environment, some higher power, or other people control their decisions and their life).
 
(Resource : Carlson, N.R., et al. (2007). Psychology: The Science of Behaviour - 4th Canadian ed.. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada.

Rotter, J.B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. NY: Prentice-Hall.)

 
 
 
Self-efficacy and Locus of control
Self-efficacy, a related concept, introduced by Albert Bandura, has been measured by means of a psychometric scale and differs from locus of control in that it relates to competence in circumscribed situations and activities (rather than more general cross-situational beliefs about control). Bandura has also emphasised differences between efficacy and self-esteem—using examples where low self-efficacy (for instance in ballroom dancing) are unlikely to result in low self-esteem where competence in that domain is not deemed very important to a particular individual.
 
Smith (1989) has argued that locus of control only weakly measure self-efficacy because "only a subset of items refer directly to the subject's capabilities" (Smith, p. 229). Smith noted that training in coping skills led to increases in self-efficacy, but did not affect locus of control as measured by Rotter's (1966) scale. 

(Resource :  Sherer, Madux et al., (1982)
Smith, R.E. (1989). "Effects of coping skills training on generalized self-efficacy and locus of control". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56 (2): 228–33.

Rotter, J.B. (1966). "Generalized expectancies of internal versus external control of reinforcements". Psychological Monographs 80 (609).)
 
 


Job and Locus of control
Locus of control has also has been included as one of the four dimensions that comprise core self-evaluations, one's fundamental appraisal of oneself, along with neuroticism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997), and since has proven to have the ability to predict several work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance.

(Resource :  Judge, T. A.; Locke, E. A.; Durham, C. C. (1997). "The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach". Research in Organizational Behavior 19: 151–188.

Bono, J. E.; Judge, T. A. (2003). "Core self-evaluations: A review of the trait and its role in job satisfaction and job performance". European Journal of Personality 17 (Suppl1): S5-S18.

Dormann, C.; Fay, D.; Zapf, D.; Frese, M. (2006). "A state-trait analysis of job satisfaction: On the effect of core self-evaluations". Applied Psychology: An International Review 55 (1): 27–51.

Judge, T. A.; Locke, E. A.; Durham, C. C.; Kluger, A. N. (1998). "Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations". Journal of Applied Psychology 83 (1): 17–34.

Judge, T. A.; Bono, J. E. (2001). "Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability—with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis". Journal of Applied Psychology 86 (1): 80–92.

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